I have had treatment for an enlarged prostate and subsequently radiation treatment 'for' (that should 'against' I always think) suspected cancer. From my experience and some reading, including of research papers and EU urology guidlines, I have learned a few things:
Most men are very reticent or even squeamish about the subject and, as with health treatment generally, slow and reluctant to seek medical attention. To this I always say "It isn't just for you. Think of all the people, partners, children etc. who love and depend on you. It is your duty and responsibility to protect and care for them by looking after yourself." If you have the symptoms, get it seen to, and if you are simply at the crucial age, do so anyway.
If you have difficulty in urinating, e.g. having to wait before the flow begins, not being able to maintain a steady & regular flow, having to get up most (or every) night(s) to urinate, then you probably have an enlarged prostate. This is NOT cancer. The urethra, which carries urine from the bladder, passes through prostate gland which, if enlarged, squeezes the urethra and slows down the urine flow and stops you from peeing normally. An enlarged prostrate is very common in men usually from the age of about 50; it happened to me in my late 40s.
The doctor will probably send you for a PSA test - they take a bit of blood from your arm and send it for analysis. It doesn't hurt! The PSA reading, or number, is a guide and not proof of (e.g.) cancer - some men have quite a high number but no other 'symptoms' a friend of mine has a high PSA reading, but several biopsies show he has no infection. I had a much lower number than his and I had to have further treatment.
The doctor might also give you a finger test in order to get an idea of the size and texture of your prostate; this is a good guide as to the advisability of further investigative treatment.
Further treatment might be regular PSA tests to monitor possible changes in the reading. It may well include a measurement of your rate of urine flow, and an ultrasound test to show the actual size of the prostate.
It could also mean going to a hospital for a biopsy - basically they take small samples from your prostate for analysis for possible signs of infection.
It could also be a recommendation for a prostate 'resection' - basically an operation to reduce the size of the prostate to relieve pressure on the urethra and allow freer flow of urine. This worked well for me, but I think there are different ways of performing this operation so if you get this far make sure you find out whether there are any side effects.
After my resection operation, which was painless and fairly quick, I continued to have PSA tests to monitor for changes. I also experienced the absolute bliss of peeing normally again - not to be underestimated!.
But my tests and subsequent biopsies showed there might still be a problem (a 'small lesion' on my prostate), so I was advised to have radiation treatment (nearly 3 years ago), which seems to have done the trick. A significant and decisive factor in deciding on radiation treatment is your GLEASON SCORE. If you get to this stage you should find out what your Gleason Score is: the European Association of Urologists produced Guidelines in 2013 (you can Google them) on whether radiation treatment was advisable depending on the patient's score.
But I return to my original point. A crucial factor in detection and treatment is to get it done as soon as possible - a problem detected early is a problem much more easily and effectively treated, resolved, cured. So why wait?
And finally; I have no medical training. The above is based entirely on my own personal experience and I offer it in the hope that it will help others to understand a bit better some things I didn't know beforehand, and maybe help them make slightly-more-informed decisions.