Oh my goodness no they won’t accept that card and as a resident you shouldn’t be using it anyway, it is just for tourists. If something happened you may not be covered if they know you live here. Does you travel insurance actually cover you as you are not a UK resident (many in the small print specify that you need to be UK resident).
You need to call and get your S1 sorted as soon as possible. You are able to use the S1 itself as your proof for the prefecture (although they may ask you to send in proof once you are in the French system and you have your SS number).
This is the number you need to call, it will be sent to you at your French address. You need to be clear that you arrived in France before 31/12/20 but just hadn’t got around to calling yet:
For S1 Overseas Healthcare Service on +44 191 218 1999
This seems strange when you are claiming to be resident here, are you maybe a new arrival?
Until you get your health care situation in order you wont’ be summoned or be finalising your card, it is one of the few things that they ask you for. Once you have that it is an easy process - the same looking forms as the original so you’ll just need to upload your S1 when you get it.
You can read all about healthcare and how to apply to the French healthcare system . If you prefer to have the information in English the CPAM also have information in English and an English speaking helpline .
I hope this helps.